Genesis 38:8 says, "Then Judah said to Onan, 'Sleep with your brother's wife and fulfill your duty to her as a brother-in-law to raise up offspring for your brother.'" It is not about wife swapping, so much as taking the place of a dead brother to bear children with his widow.
Archer is not surprised that Ray is not a fan of the Old Testament, most probably because of passages such as Leviticus 20:13 which advocate putting two men who lie with each other to death. These types of verses are frequently cited by religious groups who are against homosexuality.
When Ray says he's going to beat his brother like a rented mule, Archer says that that sounds like something from the Bible. Numbers 22:21-32 contains a passage about Balak beating a donkey three times (a mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse) only to have God chastise him for it, by speaking through the donkey's mouth.
Randy's direction to "slap iron" to any wounds received in the shootout is a reference to "The Outlaw Josey Wales."
Sterling comments "For all we know, they're building a Gundam suit with bazookas for hands", referring to the apparent burglars raiding the ISIS armory. This implies he has a more advanced knowledge of Japanese culture than previously let on, as the Gundam franchise is both the most popular and earliest franchises that led to the explosion of similar media featuring mecha suits. However, in A Debt Of Honor, Sterling does not list Gundam as a component of his knowledge of Japanese culture. This may simply be an oversight.
The mech in particular that Sterling mentions actually exists: in the movie Mobile Suit Gundam 00: A Wakening of the Trailblazer (2010), alien lifeforms called Extraterrestrial Livingmetal Shapeshifters (ELS) assimilate multiple GNX-803T GN-XIV [pronounced "Jynx Four"] mobile suits - some armed with dual bazookas - throughout the movie. During the final battle, independent ELS merge to create their own, albeit crude, versions of the GN-XIV, opting to not form hands and incorporating the weapons into the arms. As the GN-X series were designed to be the first mass produced Gundam knockoffs of the Gundam 00 universe, the ELS literally build "Gundam suits with bazookas for hands."
Kenny Rogers Roasters is a chain of chicken based restaurants founded by country musician Kenny Rogers and former Kentucky governor John Y. Brown, Jr.. Cheryl thinks a rooster is a hen, then when Ray corrects her and says it's a rooster, she thinks it's a Kenny Rogers Roosters; Ray has to correct her again.
Sheriff E.Z. Ponder used to tease Ray for wearing capezios in high school; Capezio is the trade name of Capezio Ballet Makers Inc., a manufacturer of dance shoes, apparel and accessories.
The title seems to reference "Bloody Harlan", a reference to a nickname for Harlan County, Kentucky, where attempts to unionize the coal mines in the 1930s led to intense violence and much bloodshed. It could also be a hat-tip to Archer's fellow FX series "Justified", which often takes place in Harlan County. (Timothy Olyphant, Justified's lead actor, has been a voice actor on "Archer" as well.)
Lana: "The alarm company called us because the motion sensors were going off."
Lana: "Yeah, the rest of us got new key codes Monday, but you were... where was it?
Ray: "Physical therapy."
Lana: "For your 'limp, useless legs.'"
Archer: "Well, it's obviously working, you're on a--Wait a minute! How the hell are you walking around on ladders?!"
Lana: "Because he's not paralyzed!"
Ray: "And is that not the stuff of miracles?"
Ray: "Anyway, he (E.Z.) wants Randy's dope farm for himself or he's gonna kill him, so I gotta go down there and stop him."
Archer: "Count me in."
Lana: "What? Why?"
Archer: "Well, for one thing, it's eerily similar to the plot of 'White Lightning', and this is Ray's brother, Lana. What's more important than family?"
Lana: "Mmm, getting hammered on moonshine and trying to bang skanky trailer chicks?"
Archer: "Um, 'trying?'"
Cyril: "So not only is Ray not paralyzed, but his brother is a drug dealer--"
Cyril: "And he and Archer are in West Virginia doinnnng...what the heck are they doing?"
Pam: (peeking up from behind a stall) "Fighting a war on the war on drugs?"
Pam: "What? You should've looked under the stalls."
Lana: "I did! Wait, I did."
Pam: "Yeah, I usually put my feet up on the grab bars."
Ray: "Well, there she is. The old homestead."
Cheryl: "Jesus, what's my dowry? Tetanus?"
Archer: "Ray, to be honest, I'm kind of having second thoughts about this whole thing."
Cheryl: "Uh, get in line."
Janelle: "Randy Gillette, where are your manners? Get these folks a map of that damn mine field so they can come inside. I got some nice, hot pie for them."
Archer: "Okay, now I'm having third thoughts."
Ray: "Oh, please don't."
Archer: "It would be rude not to eat her pie, which I assume is not only hot, but also moist. Although, hopefully not flaky."
Randy: "Do you wanna have sex with my wife?"
Archer: "No, I-I swear, this was just an extremely unlikely mishap with the barbed wire."
Randy: "'Cause we would be amenable to that. Well? Why d'you look so nonplussed?"
Archer: "Because I wasn't sure if you knew what amenable actually meant, until you followed it up with nonplussed."
Randy: "Well, don't just sit there, shoot!"
Archer: "Ugh. I can't. I feel sick. What's happening? Do I have cancer again?"
Ray: "You drank too much!"
Archer: "That's a thing?"
Pam: "Here's the files you had me pull."
(Pam accidentally shocks Malory.)
Malory: "OW! What the hell is on your hands?"
Pam: "My bum-zappers. For the shock-fights? That I'm doing for Krieger, which is why he broke the server, to help Lana cover up that Ray and Mr. Archer are killing cops for a drug dealer, and also Ray's been faking that he's paralyzed?"