Le Chuffre attempted to extort $4 million from Malory Archer in exchange for a disk that contained unknown, unverified information. He died when Benoit drove his out-of-control Gran Prix racing car off a ramp into Le Chuffre's helicopter.
His name is a spoof of Le Chiffre, the villain from the first James Bond novel, Casino Royale. He only vaguely resembles the character in the novel, who is described as being overweight. It is also probably a reference to the British slang "The Chuffer" i.e. The backside.
Archer loses most of the 401K funds playing Chemin de fer, the game James Bond beats Le Chiffre at in Casino Royale.